NBCI initially opened in January 2003 as an extension of the earlier adjacent Western Correctional Institution, with full independent operation beginning in the summer 2008. The final construction costs amounted to more than $175 million.
In 2011, operating costs totaled $50,613,215 for 1,471 inmates, equating to approximately $34,407 per inmate per year. With 555 employees as of 2011, NBCI is the eighth-largest employer in Allegany County. It is however, one of the most dangerous jobs in the world.